There are several biological types of mustard: Russian, French and English (white). The latter is used to restore soil fertility and protect it from erosion. In order for the mustard leaf to get into the soil and fertilize it, you need to mow the plant on time.
Compare plants with green manure characteristics
Siderata are plants that are used as environmentally friendly fertilizers. They are sown in fields and garden plots to enrich the land. Siderata grow rapidly, forming lush thickets that prevent weeds from growing and spreading fungal and bacterial diseases. Their roots loosen the earth, improving its structure and helping to penetrate air and moisture.
Soon after flowering, the crop is mown and buried in the ground.
The green mass enriches the soil with nutrients and serves as an additional food for earthworms, which are considered universal loosening agents and “enrichment agents” of the earth. The more of them in the garden, the better for the harvest.
Siderata can be planted along with other crops, but it is recommended to sow them after harvest in order to have time to saturate the depleted soil before winter.
One of the simplest and most affordable siderates is white mustard. Its seeds are cheap and sold in flower markets.
We are guided by the timing of sowing and emergence of shoots
The exact sowing time for mustard varies by region. In the southern regions, this can be done at the end of February, in the central regions - in March and later. It is better to plant a frost-resistant, moisture-loving culture in sunny areas, since it grows poorly on clay soils.
Mustard ripens in one and a half to two months, depending on the weather.
By this time, it grows to 10-15 and even 20 cm. The growth of the plant is influenced by heat, sufficient moisture and the sun, so it grows differently in different regions. Note that plant growth is not an indicator for mowing. It is important not to miss the moment of budding. It is during this period that the culture gains the greatest amount of nutrients for flowering. Why you need to mow at the time of budding:
- leaves and stems are more tender before the formation of flowers, they will decompose faster in the soil. After flowering, they begin to coarse and become tough;
- during the flowering period, the plant spends accumulated nutrients and becomes less useful as a fertilizer;
- if the plant has time to give seeds, the next year you can get whole beds of self-sown weeds.
The mowed greens must be immediately dug up, slightly deepening it into the ground. If the weather is dry, the dug-up area must be watered so that decay goes faster. You can plant other vegetables in this place in 2-4 weeks. Spring sowing has many advantages:
- the soil before planting other crops will have time to feed on useful substances;
- parasites and pathogens will die in the ground;
- the weeds cannot grow here.
It should be noted that mustard must not be sown at the place where cabbage, radish, radish, lettuce grow, before and after planting them. These plants belong to the same cruciferous family and share common diseases. In addition, mustard should not be planted next to turnips. White mustard is a good neighbor for grapes, potatoes, beans and fruit trees. It will protect plants from pests and pathogens, enrich them with useful elements and help them grow quickly.In summer, it is good to add mustard to other plants that take a long time to ripen, such as eggplants, tomatoes or peppers. Mustard is an indispensable tool in the fight against late blight and other diseases. If the mustard grows next to other vegetables in the garden beds, it is cut when it reaches their height.
How many days before snow do you need to mow
In order for the culture to be beneficial, the mown green manure must have time to master the earthworms, whose vital activity ceases after the establishment of a permanent snow cover. You can calculate this moment by counting 30 days from the first snowfall.
Mustard can be planted in the fall after harvest, so that the land is not empty.
You need to sow immediately after harvesting, after two or three days, otherwise the weeds will have time to germinate. Winter plants will need to be mowed in early spring. For sowing before winter, you need to thoroughly clean the area of vegetables, weeds, roots, and properly moisten the soil.
The land should be additionally fertilized with humus, compost or manure and watered well.
The planted mustard seeds should be watered from a watering can, otherwise a strong jet of water can wash them out of the ground or, conversely, deepen them too deep.
Seeds that are deeply planted take longer to germinate.
Mustard sown in autumn will have time to develop the root system well, additionally loosening the soil and preventing the development of erosion. In winter, plants will help keep the ground from freezing and avoid dehydration.
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Why is mustard useful as a fertilizer in the garden when you need to sow it?
With each of our crops, a large amount of micronutrients is removed from the soil, and their volume directly depends on the yield of the crop. The most "voracious" crops are sunflower and corn, no less "appetite" for potatoes. In order to restore the fertility of the soil in the garden, it must be constantly fed. In addition to the introduction of organic fertilizers, perhaps one of the most environmentally friendly and affordable ways is green manure. And of the green manure plants, the most convenient, effective and inexpensive is white mustard.
Purpose and role of sideration
This term comes from the French. the words sideration (translation - stunning effect) is an agricultural technique when individual plants are deliberately grown as green mass, which is then plowed into the soil. This subsequently makes it possible to improve the structure of the soil, saturate it with organic and mineral substances, primarily nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Annual plants with a short growth period (30-60 days), a large vegetative mass increase - 500-700 kg per 1 hundred square meters are selected as green manure. The most popular siderates:
- white mustard.
After a set of green mass (but before the onset of the flowering period), the plants must be mowed, chopped up and buried at the growing site. The second option is that the mowed part is transferred to another place in the garden or garden, or compost is made, and the roots are left in the soil to rot. This technique is similar in effect to the introduction of manure into the soil.
Sowing green manure is possible at any time of the growing season. Autumn - when frost-resistant plants are sown, which are grown before the start of planting of the main crops. In early spring, siderates are sown in the garden, which quickly gain green mass. Mustard also belongs to them. 2 weeks before sowing vegetables or planting potatoes, the siderat is mowed and buried shallowly into the soil, or even left on the surface as mulch. The roots that remain in the soil perfectly structure the soil, saturate it with oxygen and nutrients.
The value of green manure crops in the garden is significantly increased with the use of EM preparations, the solutions of which must be watered on the mowed mass and beds in the garden.
This significantly increases the yield of plants grown after green manure. Mustard, as a fertilizer, also protects the soil from overheating and weathering.
The effectiveness of mustard
The mustard plant belongs to the Cruciferous family (as well as all types of cabbage), is an annual plant with a short growing season, an excellent honey plant and is widely used for livestock feed. People use mustard seeds as a seasoning for dishes, and in medicine - as a warming and disinfecting agent. Due to the high content of phytoncides and essential oils, mustard acts as an excellent prophylactic agent against many plant diseases (potato scab, rhizoctonia, late blight) and repels pests. In particular, slugs, wireworms, and grub larvae strongly dislike mustard.
White mustard, as a fertilizer, has many advantages over other crops. First, it germinates quickly after some 3-4 days, at fairly low temperatures, even when the temperature drops to 0 degrees. The sprouts can withstand temperatures as low as -5 degrees below zero. The yield is quite high - up to 400 kg of green mass per one hundred square meters. The composition of the herb is very balanced:
- 0.7% nitrogen
- 0.9% phosphorus
- 0.5 - potassium
- 22-25% organic matter.
And even during the flowering period, this culture attracts a huge number of beneficial insects: pollinators and those that destroy pests of the garden and vegetable garden.
Mustard roots penetrate deep into the ground - up to 2-3 meters. They perfectly structure the soil, saturate it with gases and protect the earth from wind erosion and erosion. If sowing is done in early September, after harvesting, for example, potatoes in the garden, then before frost it will gain enough green mass and can even bloom. In this case, there is no need to mow it - the frost will gradually destroy the upper part, but the stems will be excellent snow retainers, and the roots will retain moisture in the soil. By the way, in regions where winds are constantly blowing, it is advised to make curtain protective strips of mustard: even before mowing the first crop, they immediately sow the second (and then the third). The greens are used for fertilization, and the roots strengthen the soil.
Another significant feature of this culture is that its roots are able to absorb even nutrients that are hardly soluble in water, which other plants cannot assimilate.
Further, the green mass transforms them into forms that are easily accessible for vegetables, which return to the ground after digging in the green manure.
How to grow mustard
It is not difficult to acquire white mustard seeds. They are sold by weight or sold in packaged form in every seed store or where they sell feed for farm animals.
They are similar to other cabbage seeds, but as a couple, instead of mustard, unscrupulous market sellers can throw in cheaper seeds such as rapeseed. It is also grown as a green manure, but most often this rapeseed is genetically modified. Therefore, purchase seeds from shops that guarantee the quality of the seeds.
Sowing mustard as fertilizer, with continuous sowing, you need to thickly - per hundred square meters you need from 300 to 400 grams of seeds. They just need to be simply scattered over the soil and shallowly sealed with a rake. Before sowing, you can sprinkle nitroammofosk on the soil - the mustard will perfectly "convert" it into a useful organic fertilizer. You can also add manure and ash to the planting. White mustard does not like salty and waterlogged soils, and on others, sowing it will definitely be beneficial.
Seeds germinate quickly - shoots appear as early as on the 4th day, even in cold weather, at a minimum above-zero temperature. The sprouts are rapidly gaining mass. If there is not enough moisture in the soil, it would be good to water it 1-2 times, otherwise the growth of the plant slows down. For a period from 30 to 40 days, the plants grow up to 20 cm, after which they can be mowed or trimmed with a flat cutter. The mustard herb is tender and juicy at this time. If you leave it for longer, then the races
Varieties of siderates and the rules for their planting
The culture is melliferous, fodder, and also used as a green fertilizer. The grass enriches the soil with humus and organic matter. The presence of essential oils in the composition provides a deterrent effect against pests and fungal diseases. Oil radish is used in the fight against wireworms and nematodes.
You need to cut greens for use as fertilizer for 5-7 weeks of growing season. Autumn harvesting must be completed 2 weeks before the soil freezes. It is better to close it in the ground with a shovel or cultivator.
Radish like green manure in the garden
One of the most popular plants for orderlies at their summer cottage is rye. The culture is unpretentious to the type of soil, withstands dry weather. Simple agricultural techniques are complemented by useful green manure properties:
- lightens dense soils
- suppresses weeds
- inhibits fungal spores, helps to get rid of nematodes
- increases soil fertility.
Sowing is planned from the end of August to the 20th of September. The green mass builds up quickly, forming dense bushes. When the height of greenery reaches 15-20 cm, the aboveground part is cut off and embedded in the ground.
Rye is cut when it reaches 15 cm
Phacelia for good soil
Phacelia has not only an attractive appearance, but also has the ability to lighten heavy soils, enrich them with valuable microelements. A feature of the plant is considered to be good compatibility with almost all garden crops, therefore, after cutting off the greenery, everything can be planted.
Sowing work is carried out in the spring or after harvest (until the end of August). Some gardeners plant phacelia before winter. Any type of soil is suitable for growing green manure, flowers grow even on rocky terrain with scarce nutrients.
Features of the plant:
- increases soil fertility
- prevents the formation of erosion
- drives away pests
- cleans the environment from harmful bacteria and spores.
Winter and spring rape as green manure
Among the main advantageous characteristics of rape is the ability to suppress weeds, improve the soil structure, saturating it with useful microelements.
It is advisable to plant the spring variety in late March or early April. The cut is made after 35-45 days. Winter rape is planted from August to the end of October. The aboveground part should be cut off before flowering begins.
When planting with carrots in a vegetable crop, an increase in the yield and quality of root crops is noted.
Applying mustard in spring and autumn
Siderat copes well with cleaning the soil from scab, late blight, black leg and other diseases. The plant, due to the content of essential oils, repels pests (nematode, wireworm, etc.). Mustard grows on almost any soil, quickly forming a green mass.
After embedding, the soil is enriched with phosphorus, potassium, sulfur and other microelements. You can sow the plant in the beds at any time. It is necessary to cut off at the initial stage of flowering until the pods are formed and immediately plow them.
Mustard is cut at the initial stage of flowering
Oats in the winter in the garden
The culture improves the soil structure, enriches it with nutrients, inhibits the growth of weeds. Cold resistance allows sowing from March to November. Zthe spruce mass grows on average in 5-7 weeks, after which it is cut off and embedded in the ground.
When grown before winter, no digging is performed.
When to sow lupine
The culture belongs to the legume family; it has been used as a green manure since ancient times. It is especially effective to use the plant on dense soils.
Lupine makes them loose, rich in potassium, nitrogen and other nutrients. After the introduction of green fertilizer, it is ideal to plant cabbage, cucumbers, peppers, tomatoes, potatoes. The filling of the green mass is carried out upon reaching 1.5 months of age. A feature of lupine is its ability to reduce the acidic environment in the soil.
Lupine is cut 1.5 months after planting
Winter wheat in October
Planting winter wheat podzimny in the country is considered an excellent option for improving the soil.Its powerful root system structures dense soils, the green mass saturates with nitrogen, calcium and other nutrients. Due to its earth-drying properties, it is recommended to sow wheat in combination with other green manures.
Sowing is planned for the fall. In the spring, before planting the main crop (in 2-4 weeks), the land must be dug up.
Winter wheat is sown in the fall
Siderata for tomatoes
In a greenhouse in the middle lane, not many plants are grown, mainly cucumbers, tomatoes and peppers. Therefore, the use of green manure will be a real salvation for the impoverished soil. Before planting tomato seedlings, you can sow any legumes, cruciferous or cereal siderates. The most ideal option is phacelia. You can also sow: vetch, alfalfa, lupine, oats, buckwheat, goat's rue. The use of these green manures will increase the tomato yield by at least 30%! In addition, pests will not be afraid of seedlings.
Siderata that are sown after tomatoes
After the tomatoes, it is worth planting plants that will cleanse the soil of phytophthora and saturate it with nitrogen. The best choices are phacelia, mustard and oil radish. If next year you plan to grow tomatoes in the greenhouse again, plant the beds with rye or alfalfa, which will disinfect the soil.
Plants that are sown to restore the earth
There are many green manure plants. You need to sow those of them that can solve your problem. The choice is also dictated by the availability of culture in a particular area.
The main advantage of oats as a green manure is its availability in almost any region, good germination and strong growth. It suppresses growing weeds in the garden. It is about oats that the Russian proverb is: "Throw in the mud - you will be a prince." In the mud, that is, in the earliest spring, when the snow has just melted and the earth is saturated with moisture, this crop is planted not only for a good harvest. Oats require constant moisture to germinate.
As soon as the oats have reached a height of 10-20 cm, the site can be dug up, plowing green mass into the ground. It will enrich the soil with protein, potassium and phosphorus. If the mass is allowed to grow, it will not be possible to dig it up without the help of special equipment. But you can leave the oats until ripe. In this case, the soil will be provided with rest.
These flowers not only decorate the garden, but are also known for their ability to repel harmful insects. Flowers and leaves of marigolds have a specific smell, which remains in the dried raw materials. If you sow part of the site with Tagetes, you can reduce the use of chemicals.
Phacelia is one of the most popular green manures. She is a wonderful honey plant. If planted, it attracts bees. It heals the soil by attracting beneficial insects. Another important advantage of phacelia is the rapid growth of green mass, which serves as a fertilizer.
It is a powerful crop that suppresses even strong weeds. Rye, like green manure, happens in winter for planting in autumn, and spring to sow in spring. This culture enriches the soil with beneficial microflora and attracts insects that destroy pests. Rye can be planted several times a season until the weeds are completely destroyed.
One of the favorite crops for gardeners. Mustard rises quickly and gains green mass. Its flowers attract bees and other insects. If you plant this green manure after diseased plants, it will heal the soil. It is known for its ability to suppress scab. You should not plant mustard in heavily overgrown areas, it cannot suppress the growth of weeds.
Land planted with lupine quickly gets rid of weeds. Its roots penetrate well into the ground, loosen it and inhibit the growth of other plants.
This popular legume contains nitrogen, starch and other nutrients for the soil. Lupine is almost not ill. If you sow it constantly for several years, then the site will have a good rest.
They are planted in the garden as a medicinal plant. Experienced gardeners noticed that she not only herself was not sick with anything, but also “heals” the crops that grow next to her. That is why calendula is planted around the perimeter of the beds. This property is also used when growing it as a green manure. The grown flowers are plowed into the soil.
An excellent honey plant and a source of nutrients. For its use as a green manure, the listed properties have a positive result. Clover is plowed in summer, at the first shoots, or in autumn.
Buckwheat protects and restores soil structure. You need to sow it periodically throughout the garden, changing areas every year. With the help of such a crop rotation, the land will rest well.
Contains essential oils that inhibit the growth of pathogens. Rape is also useful for the garden because when plowing its seedlings, the soil is enriched with sulfur, phosphorus, and nutrients.
Shrovetide radish is used on the site as a nurse. She is able to rid the garden of nematodes and attract beneficial insects.
Depending on the type of problem, you must choose one of the above siderates. They will help heal the soil and recover. Crops embedded in the soil will restore the balance of microelements.
Greenhouse tomato greenhouse. The best green manures for tomatoes in autumn
The composition of siderates for autumn sowing depends on where you plan to grow tomatoes - in a greenhouse or in the open field.
The dates indicated below are relevant for the middle band. If you live in southern latitudes, they move 2 weeks forward. For a cold climate, from the given dates, you need to count 1.5-2 weeks ago.
What to sow in the greenhouse until mid-September
Cruciferous siderates - oil radish, white mustard, spring rape, spring rape.
All these plants loosen the soil to a great depth, saturate it with nitrogen and potassium, and also suppress the causative agents of fungal infections. But my favorite is white mustard - this is a real record holder for the speed of green mass gain. She is also super unpretentious.
Legume siderates - annual lupine, peas, spring vetch, seradella.
Legumes are used as green fertilizers when your main goal is to saturate the soil with natural nitrogen.
From this list, I advise you to pay attention to the peas and the annual lupine. Lupine is especially good in this regard. It not only provides full nitrogen fertilization, but also inhibits the development of pathogenic bacteria in the soil.
And according to American agronomists, vetch is the best green manure for tomatoes. It has been experimentally proven that growing it on a tomato bed gives an increase in yield up to 50%!
Phacelia and buckwheat. Phacelia is the best choice of these two crops. It works just as well as mustard, and it also helps to normalize the acidity of the soil in the greenhouse.
What to sow in the greenhouse before the end of October
We usually remove the last tomato bushes from the greenhouse in mid-October. At this time, it is already too late to sow spring crops in greenhouses - before the onset of cold weather, they will not have time to grow even up to 10 centimeters.
In such a situation, winter rye and winter oats help out. Before winter arrives, they manage to rise and slowly grow to severe frosts.
Cereals are renowned for their phytosanitary properties. And it is also the best option if you need to thoroughly loosen the greenhouse soil and protect it from erosion processes in the off-season.
What to sow outdoors in September
It is useful to add a little lupine or pea seeds to cereal winter green manure
It is good to plant tomatoes in the open field next year after mid-season vegetables - cauliflower, zucchini, cucumbers, asparagus and common beans, beans. But these crops usually leave the beds not earlier than September, when it is too late to sow most of the siderates.
Until the end of September, winter rye and winter oats can be sown outdoors. In this case, the plants are left in the garden until spring.
If before that, cabbage or pumpkin plants (cucumbers, zucchini, squash) grew on the garden bed, I advise you to pre-fill the soil with fertilizers (per square meter):
- compost, humus - ½-1 bucket
- complex mineral fertilizer - 5-7 grams.
After legumes, only phosphorus and potash fertilizers are applied at the same rate - 5-7 grams per square.