Every experienced summer resident knows that it is impossible to plant the same vegetable crops in the same area every year. This will negatively affect the harvest. The landing site must not only be changed annually, but must also take into account the predecessors. If such recommendations are followed, the future harvest will only increase each time, because vegetable plants will no longer suffer from pests and various infectious diseases, from numerous weeds. Soil in organic beds will eventually become not only the main source of plant nutrition, but also their reliable protection.
There is a proven crop rotation scheme that will help to gradually update the vegetable beds and switch to organic farming every year. This is a time-consuming business, so take your time, and first build at least one garden bed a year, taking into account all the important points. Patiently observing all the rules, you can get a reward in the form of an unprecedented harvest.
Crop rotation scheme for organic beds
With the arrival of early spring, start building your first organic bed. Organic waste in it will decompose very quickly and generate a lot of heat. These growing conditions are ideal for any pumpkin crop. Therefore, first spill the finished bed with a solution with effective microorganisms, then cover it with an opaque dense film and cut holes in it for planting vegetables.
Such a "warm" bed is an ideal place for cucumbers, squash, squash and pumpkin.
At the end of the warm season, when the last vegetables are collected in the garden, it is necessary to sow one of the siderates (for example, calendula or legumes) on it. The grown greens should be left unmown until early spring.
The second bed is built according to the same rules and is sown with pumpkin crops again. Tomatoes, beets or any varieties of cabbage are now planted on the first bed.
After harvesting, both beds are sown with green manure: the first with radish or mustard, and the second with legumes.
The third organic patch is sown again with pumpkin seeds, the second with cabbage or tomatoes, and the very first with celery, carrots and onions.
Each time the dacha season ends with harvesting and sowing the beds with green manure. The "first year" bed is sown with legumes, the "second year" - with mustard or radish, and the very first bed - with cruciferous crops.
The crop rotation scheme and the construction of beds is repeated from year to year. Now a fourth bed has appeared.
On the very first bed, it is now recommended to plant potatoes, sweet and hot peppers or eggplants. On the other three, everything is sown according to the worked out scheme.
As for the siderates, they are also sown according to the tried and tested schedule. In the very first bed this year, you can also sow legumes.
This summer cottage season begins with the construction of the fifth bed.
The soil on the very first bed already contains a minimum amount of nutrients, since the biomass has completely decomposed. It is recommended to grow all kinds of greens on this bed - dill, parsley, sorrel, lettuce, as well as radishes or turnips.
Lupine is most suitable as green manure for the first organic bed, and on the rest, sowing is carried out according to a special scheme.
According to the worked out scheme, work is carried out on a new bed and on the previous four. The work plan changes only for the bed of the sixth year of planting.
At first, it is recommended to plant vegetables of an early ripening period - Chinese cabbage, carrots, turnips, radishes or lettuce leaves. They will ripen by the end of July, and in August you can continue to work in the garden. After the vegetables are harvested, it is necessary to plant strawberry seedlings, which will grow, develop and bear fruit for 3-4 years.
Organic farming does not involve digging up beds. Before planting seeds or seedlings, it is enough to loosen the soil.
By following the crop rotation on organic beds for six years, great positive results can be seen:
- The number of pests and diseases has been reduced to a minimum.
- Organic waste in the beds helps revitalize the soil.
- There is more free time, since it does not need to be spent on digging and watering the beds, as well as on weed control.
In order to transfer the entire land plot to organic beds, it is possible in the future to build not one, but 2-3 beds in one year.
For convenience, we recommend using the table in which a generalized crop rotation scheme is proposed.
|First bed||Second bed||Third bed||Fourth bed||Fifth bed||Sixth bed|
|First year||Any pumpkin crops|
|Second year||Any varieties of cabbage, beets, tomatoes||Any pumpkin crops|
|Third year||Onions, celery, carrots||Any varieties of cabbage, beets, tomatoes||Any pumpkin crops|
|Fourth year||Potatoes, sweet and hot peppers, eggplants||Onions, celery, carrots||Any varieties of cabbage, beets, tomatoes||Any pumpkin crops|
|Fifth year||Green crops, turnips, radishes||Potatoes, sweet and hot peppers, eggplants||Onions, celery, carrots||Any varieties of cabbage, beets, tomatoes||Any pumpkin crops|
|Sixth year||Strawberry seedlings||Green crops, turnips, radishes||Potatoes, sweet and hot peppers, eggplants||Onions, celery, carrots||Any varieties of cabbage, beets, tomatoes||Any pumpkin crops|
Video - what is a crop rotation, how to organize a crop rotation at a summer cottage
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Crop rotation in the garden - what can and cannot be planted, crop rotation, crop planning, video
Crop rotation in the garden is an extremely important thing, since any fan of growing summer cottages is well aware of the information that the soil depletes over the years, becomes less nutritious and helps the plants to develop worse and worse. There are many prerequisites for this. How to avoid falling crops and make your garden blooming and constantly bearing fruit? Details in this article.
Read also an article on when to plant zucchini in the country!
What gives us a crop rotation in the garden?
From year to year, pathogens accumulating in the soil and various pests deteriorate the quality of the crops grown. If the plantations, which are made by the affectionate love of summer residents, are practically unchanged and do not change their location, then the pest does not leave its familiar places.
For example, the Colorado potato beetle, which loves potatoes. If you do not alternate planting potatoes every year with beets, then the number of the Colorado potato beetle will not decrease.
And even if you take many measures to destroy it.
In addition to the Colorado potato beetle, soil stagnation provokes the appearance of late blight pathogens, as well as the colonization of larvae of other pests that live among the beds.
If we are talking about other cultures, then the same scheme works with them. A plot that is always planted with the same crop will only increase the number of those harmful beetles that love to feast on fruits and roots.
It is very difficult to withstand a huge invasion of insects, therefore, not only those plants that are their favorite delicacy, for example, cabbage, tomatoes, cucumbers, celery, beans and lettuce, will suffer from this factor, but also those that are extremely vulnerable by nature ...
The next factor is the increased content of harmful substances in the soil, which the system of various crops contains. These secretions have toxins not only for the surrounding plants, but also for the colina itself, as the root system of vegetables is called.
For example, beets and spinach are hit first. Carrots and pumpkin are more resistant, while corn and leeks pay little attention to colina poison.
Naturally, vegetables, berries and fruits try to extract these substances from the soil when they run out of their "set". Cabbage respects potassium, but if you plant radishes there, then potassium reserves will decrease somewhat more slowly compared to cabbage, which means it needs less potassium.
To correct the situation with the content and amount of the necessary substances in the soil, it is only necessary to observe the correct sequence of crops, as well as to plant them on the site from year to year in the required sequence. This is called crop rotation and is a whole agricultural science. It is not worth going too deep into the scientific jungle, it is enough to follow a few rules and, of course, adhere to a good sowing plan.
What to plant after what or competent planning of crops using the following rules:
- You cannot plant the same crop for several years in a row on the same plot.... The same applies to those plants that are "relatives", since they have a set of common pests, and also show the same response to the amount of toxic substances that will release colin. Naturally, they take from the soil the same composition and set of substances necessary for growth. All summer residents who do not comply with this rule may come to the fact that their soils will become not at all fertile and will be completely depleted in terms of food supply. We'll have to bring new soil to the site and fertilize it again, which of course costs a lot for lovers of garden plots.
- Observance of a certain break, after which the site must take a break from a certain culture planted on it. The rest period is 2 years. Although many summer residents say that 1 year may be enough if light crops, such as salad with celery, have been planted, still a year is not enough for the complete restoration of nutrients and trace elements in the soil. Some plants will yield better yields if you extend the rest period. For example, for carrots, cucumbers and parsley it is 4 years, and it is recommended to plant cabbage every 7 years so that the harvest is large enough. Cabbage, like strawberries, is the most capricious element of a garden plot.
- It is difficult to overestimate the properties of plants, since not many summer residents suspect that they not only take nutrients from the soil, but also enrich it with their beneficial composition, which is initially contained in the root system. Thus, if you rotate crops correctly, then you save not only the necessary supply of trace elements for a given plant, but also improve the composition and structure of the soil for the next crops. At the same time, without doing practically any procedures for this. For example, legumes loosen the soil well and add a lot of minerals to it. Planting melon and buckwheat will help saturate the soil with calcium. If you plant dope grass on the sides of your plot, then provide the plants with phosphorus, replacing the weeds with tobacco - increase the level of potassium in the soil. And if you use the planting of dioecious nettle as a preventive measure between crops, then your soil will be enriched with iron, which is useful for the growth of many useful vegetable crops. If you follow these rules, then you can easily plan the planting of plants for quite a long time in order to accurately understand your benefits in terms of the harvest.
- It is imperative to use compost after harvest as it helps the soil to look fresher and healthier. It is like a top dressing for indoor plants, those flowers that the caring hands of housewives cherish on their windowsill. If you add the plants listed above to the compost, then in addition to fresh trace elements that will come during the growth and development of these contours, you will also receive a universal fertilizer that contributes to an increase in yield even in those years when the soil seems to be losing ground.
- Do not forget also that to remove pests from the site and thereby you can increase your crop rotation by planting those plants that scare off beetles and do not allow their larvae to develop freely in the garden... For example, a cloud of aphids can be destroyed by planting garlic or tobacco all over the area. And the Colorado potato beetle is terribly afraid of thyme. Thus, by planting these plants, you can completely expel pests from the site and clear it for planting for the next years.
- And the last rule is the observance of a certain subordination among plants. Vegetables consume food from the ground in different ways, and therefore it is better not to plant a sequence of very demanding crops one after another. It is best to plant light legumes on the garden bed after heavy crops such as potatoes, beets, carrots and cabbage or cover the area with a large layer of fertilizer.
Another added bonus with annual plant rotation is constant weed control.
The scourge of all summer residents can be simply and easily removed from your garden by planting weed-insensitive plants such as garlic, onions, carrots and parsley.
They are best planted after heavy crops such as potatoes or peas.The latter give very few weeds, since they are absolutely insensitive to this type of grass.
Arrangement of ridges and crop rotation on the site
Last season, my garden plot successfully completed its second four-year crop rotation cycle.
Over the past eight years, there have been many positive changes in the plan-scheme, in the arrangement of ridges, in the development and application of new useful agricultural techniques. As a result, the soil fertility in the beds has noticeably increased, and the yields of all crops have grown accordingly. The number of pests has significantly decreased (judging by wireworm - completely disappeared). On the beds, weeds are practically defeated, my financial costs have paid off, and most importantly, the physical load on the elderly hostess and owner has significantly decreased!
Microclimate in the garden
Our house, facing the street, protects the garden from the east winds and prying eyes. The same functions are assigned to trees and bushes growing along the street grid. I have planted bushes along the northern border of the site black currant... Today it has grown and created a protective wall from the cold north winds. On the west side, the neighbor put up a high solid fence made of galvanized sheet metal. This fence protects from the wind and reflects the rays of the eastern sun to the beds. On the south side, the currant of another neighbor grows.
All beds along the length are directed from north to south. Their surface was leveled. This had to be done, since the entire surface of the site has a slight slope to the south. So now it's a sin to complain about the microclimate in the garden.
Transport problem. From the house to the toilet and from the toilet to the "makeshift" he dug a trench 0.8 m wide, and went down to clay in depth. He covered it with sand and laid on top of panel slabs measuring 75x75 cm. The sod and soil were taken out to one place, laid in a pile. Let it rot, there will be something to replenish the ridges. Now I drive weights on a trolley!
Arrangement of ridges
In the first four seasons, the formwork of the ridges made of ordinary boards rotted away. At the local building materials base, I liked a flat slate shield with dimensions of 1500x1200x8 mm. Made the necessary calculations. I bought 18 shields. Agreed with the worker of the base on sawing and delivery. Two days later, 144 pieces of "slate boards" measuring 1200x180x8 mm were laid in my temporary hut. Immediately after harvesting, taking into account the new format of edging the ridges, work began on the design of the vegetable garden.
The result was the following parameters of the beds in the edging: length 2.4 m, width 1.2 m, height 18 cm. The useful area of each is 2.88 m2. There are 24 beds in total. The passages between them are 0.5 m (I would like 0.6 m, but the transport path did not allow). The beds are divided into 4 fields with 6 beds each.
Crop rotation plan in 2007
The length of the garden from north to south is 11.2 m, from west to east - 9.9 m, its total area is 110 m2, the usable area is 69 m2. The soul rejoices when you work in the beds, edged with a slate board! Look at which beds and how the garden crops will be placed in the new season. Pay attention to the sealing fit - this is a profitable deal. In the diagram, everything is clearly thought out and tested by the experience of previous seasons. I am sure that this one crop rotation, and such an arrangement of crops in the beds guarantees me a good harvest this season. Of course, I will sow only high-quality, proven seeds and will grow new varieties and new crops. This is the first time I plan grow kohlrabi... You always want something new - it's so interesting!
The most harmful - thistle, wheatgrass, lupine - growing near the fence and in the most remote places of my site, I destroyed it with Roundup: I hung an open bottle with the drug on a cord at the waist level. With one hand he held another weed stalk, with the other hand he applied 2-3 strokes with a brush to the green top of the plant. After 2-4 days (depending on the total length of the weed), the plant turned yellow, then blackened from the top to the tips of the roots and died. Green meadows lawn I mow with an electric trimmer as early as possible, so as not to let the weeds grow and throw my seeds into the soil. In the aisles, I also use a trimmer, and where he can't get close, I help with a sharply sharpened shovel.
I weed the surfaces of the ridges like this: according to the sowing schedule, on the day preceding the sowing of seeds in a box or pots, I level the surface of the ridges with a rake, pour 20 liters of warm water from a watering can per garden bed. Soon, moist soil and bright sun will provoke weed shoots. According to the schedule, on the eve of transplanting seedlings or seedlings to the garden bed, manually using a fork and be sure to remove seedlings and seedlings of weeds from the soil with the root. The provocation is 100% successful, and the stock of weed seeds in the soil is significantly depleted.
Table for choosing the distance between plants when planting a triangle (cm) and determining the number of planting places in the garden
From storage tanks on a schedule, water is supplied to gardening. I have two barrels of 250 liters. One rests on the ground on three bricks, the other is raised on a stand 1 meter high. From this barrel, using a plastic hose with an "Open-Close" nozzle, I deliver water to the garden, namely into two black plastic barrels of 50 liters each. For them, the law - before the start of work, they must be filled with warm water, and after their completion - they must be filled again so that the water is heated. I bring water to a specific bed with a 7 liter bucket. I distribute the plants to each according to his norm with an aluminum half-liter mug.
Long ago I learned the truth - the roots need water, so I don't use a watering can and watering from above. It is scientifically established that when watering from above, water remains on the leaves and stems, which leads to the occurrence of diseases and attracts unwanted insects (for example, slugs). How much water does it take to wet the soil to the root tips? The question requires knowledge: soil type, the age and size of the plant, the size of the feeding area, the depth of the roots, the presence of mulching plantings... Of course, the weather also needs to be taken into account. To do this, you need to monitor the condition of the plants, keep your own observation log and thus learn the rate and frequency of watering.
My plants are not starving! During the season I cook a bunch of peat from a neighboring swamp and two compost: summer and autumn. Summer compost overheats by autumn. I put it in a mixture with peat 4 buckets per bed for all plants except carrots, tomato and pumpkin... The autumn semi-rotten compost is stored all winter in a reinforced concrete ring.
In the spring, I unload the frozen compost, mix it with peat, water it with warm water and cover it with a black film for 2-3 days to warm it up. I put the warmed-up peat-compost mixture only under the tomatoes and pumpkin seeds, 4 buckets per garden. To do this, I loosen the beds with a pitchfork and level them with a rake. With a shovel, I break through a groove 4-5 cm deep across the bed, pour the extracted soil into a bucket and set it aside. I apply ash evenly along the entire groove, and then use a trowel to spread 1/3 of the bucket of overwintered compost. While digging the next groove, I cover the first with soil removed from the second. And so throughout the garden. When ash and compost have been introduced into the last (12th) groove, I fill it with soil from the first groove that was collected in a bucket. As a result, the ridges remain loose throughout the summer, the irrigation water is well and quickly absorbed by the compost during the summer and is completely recycled. earthworms in ready-made food for plants.
Strawberry crop rotation for a good harvest
To get good harvests of strawberries every year, it must be grown in a crop rotation, that is, with a certain alternation of crops. It should not grow in the same place, otherwise pathogens of fungal diseases (primarily verticillary wilting) and nematodes (especially stem and a number of soil ones) accumulate. When changing the planting site, you need to choose favorable predecessor crops.
Areas previously occupied by potatoes, tomatoes and other nightshades as well as cucumbers are of little or no use for strawberries. These crops are dangerous due to the possible transfer of wilt pathogens. The likelihood of strawberry infection with stem nematode can increase if it is planted after plants of the Rosaceae family, Compositae (for example, asters, Potentilla, buttercup, legumes).
On poor soils, the best predecessors of strawberries are crops that are used as green manure, for example, mustard, phacelia. In addition, they are melliferous, so they will improve the pollination of the garden, and after flowering they will serve as fertilizer when you bury their aboveground part in the soil. All organic "soil improvers" (foliage, plant waste, young weeds, etc.), which also inhibit the reproduction of soil nematodes, also have a positive effect.
Here is one of the options for crop rotation with intensive use of the area under strawberries. Set aside four sections. On one of them, in the spring, sow early green ones (radish, lettuce, dill), and on July 20 - August 1, plant strawberries on it, it will grow in this place for another three years. Take the other three plots with the recommended strawberry predecessors.
When you master the crop rotation, in the second plot you will have strawberries in the first year of fruiting, in the third - in the second, in the fourth - in the third year of fruiting. After harvesting on the fourth site, you harvest strawberry plants and occupy it with green ones (radish, lettuce, kohlrabi).
For this crop rotation, planting material is required annually for a quarter of the total area. With such cultivation of strawberries on the same soils, the crop rotation plot must be changed after eight years (two rotations).
The planting time of strawberries is of great importance, since the size of the first harvest depends on it. There is such a rule: the earlier the plants are planted, the higher the yield can be grown for the next year.
It is better to get planting material from young plants, as they are usually healthier and form whiskers intensively. In addition, the quality of the material also depends on the timing of its receipt: the earlier the outlet is formed and rooted, the more powerful (more productive) the seedlings will be).
For early plantings, it is advisable to separate the rosettes from pure, healthy mother plants and dive (root) them on special beds.
If mother plants are grown under plastic wrap from early spring, the rosettes will appear earlier. The formation of the mustache is enhanced if you remove the peduncles from the uterine bushes.
When separating the rosettes, favorable conditions are created for mother plants, since a significant amount of plastic substances is spent on the formation of a whisker. Experiments have shown that when the whiskers are removed and the rosettes are separated, the plant yield for the next year increases significantly.
To prepare the site for planting strawberries, apply evenly over the entire surface the required amount of organic (rotted manure, compost, etc.) and mineral fertilizers. Then dig up the soil on a full bayonet of a shovel and carefully level. When digging, select and remove perennial weeds (wheatgrass, sow thistle, bindweed, dandelion, etc.) from the rhizome area.
Plant only highly developed plants, since the more leaves are formed in the seedlings, the thicker the horn and the more powerful the root system, the greater the yield. Transplantation of dived seedlings should be carried out with a lump of soil mixture, this guarantees 100% survival of plants and their good development. Strawberry seedlings are planted in such a way that the heart is at the level of the soil surface. After planting the plants, they must be watered, the soil should be kept in a loose state, and in hot sunny weather, shade for 5-7 days (with burlap, newspapers, etc.).
Complexes of machines for vegetable growing
For the industrial processing of vegetables on farms, a wide range of machines and assemblies are used. Let's start by preparing the soil for vegetable crops. With the introduction of a complex of specialized machines in the production technology of vegetable crops, technological processes can be mechanized.
This is the formation of ridges, laying mulch film, drip irrigation tape, sowing seeds, planting seedlings, inter-row cultivation of crops and plantings, collecting root crops and bulbs, loading dug out products into vehicles, continuous collection of tomatoes (varieties and hybrids that are bred for machine technology) ...
The main energy tool for aggregation with special machines in vegetable growing is now row-crop tractors of a traction class of 14-20 kN, the track width of which is 1.4 or 1.8 m.We also note that some of the machines for harvesting vegetables are self-propelled with an engine power of 80 -130 kW.
Trailed, semi-trailed and mounted machines for the mechanization of technological processes of growing vegetables have a working width from 1.4 to 5.6 m. Schemes for sowing and planting vegetable crops, as well as technological complexes of machines, coordinated with the width of the machine, the crops that are grown, and the shape of the surface soil.
Now there is a park of technical means for vegetable growing, replenished mainly due to the supply of foreign equipment. Domestic producers practically do not produce it, except for the Klen vegetable seeder and a number of some machines for growing potatoes.
SIGMA pneumatic vegetable seeder
Precision seeder MATERMACC MSO
The tasks of cultivating the soil for vegetable crops are the same as in the cultivation of other agricultural crops, however, the requirements for the quality of processing and the technique for performing individual techniques in vegetable growing have their own characteristics. Precision seeders and transplanters require appropriate soil preparation. The field and the soil must be level, the soil must have a fine and uniform structure.
The complex of works on preparing the soil for vegetable crops often requires such operations as the creation of ridges and ridges, which improves the conditions for the growth of plants and the vital activity of the root system. For this, special machines are used, which, after tillage, prepare ridges or ridges for sowing or planting vegetable crops - these are bed-forming cultivators and bed-forming cultivators.
Ridge former Grimme four-row with active working bodies
Double-row Grimme ridge former with passive working bodies
In this case, the operation of forming a ridge can be carried out simultaneously with its covering with a mulch film and inserting a drip tape (photo below). These machines can be with active and passive working bodies, they form in one pass from one to three ridges and from two to eight ridges.
Milling bed former AI MAXI
Bed-forming cultivators with active working bodies create soil with a fine structure, roll the soil surface and form a ridge. They are equipped with a milling drum, rollers for the formation of ridges. The machines are of the same type by design and differ in working width, number of cut ridges and roller design. Bed-formers cultivators with passive working bodies consist of a frame, bed-formers, markers. The machines have different working widths - as a rule, no more than four ridges are cut in one pass.
Spring cutting of ridges and ridges is carried out within 4-5 days on loamy soils in texture, 1-3 days before planting - on sandy loamy soils. Autumn cutting is carried out on soils with a humus content of more than 3% after the main processing: two to three weeks before the onset of stable frosts, non-moldboard processing is carried out to a depth of 18-20 cm and ridges or ridges are cut with the simultaneous introduction of mineral fertilizers. When cutting ridges, the row spacing is used, with which the planting is then performed. The height of the combs is 12-14cm.
Below you can watch a video where you can clearly see the work of the bed former, you have already seen its photo above:
And this is a Ge-Force 8 × 75 bed former:
Row spacing varies by crop. Since potatoes are mainly grown using the technology with the use of ridges, the width of the row spacing with the central ridges will be 70, 75 and 90 cm. Cutting of the ridges with a variable width of the row spacing is allowed in accordance with the recommendations of the cultivation technology. The height of the ridges in autumn cutting is 18-20 cm (± 2 cm), in spring cutting - 12-14 cm (± 2 cm). In the fields with autumn cutting of ridges, before planting or sowing, the soil is loosened in the ridges and aisles to a depth of 12-14 cm (± 3 cm) with simultaneous correction of the ridges.
The direction of the ridges should be straight. For the formation of ridges and ridges for planting or sowing, depending on the cultivation technology, machines Grimme, Simon, Struik and others are used.
Sowing and planting vegetable crops
Sowing and planting of vegetable crops is carried out in various ways, depending on the biological characteristics of plants and means of mechanization. The most common sowing and planting methods are line spacing with different row spacings and belt (especially for small-seeded crops) with different belt spacing.
Seedling machines for sowing vegetable crops in farms are mainly used pneumatic vegetable seed drills, which sow carrots, tomatoes, onions and other crops. They are manufactured in various configurations with a rigid or complex frame for one-, two- or three-row sowing with the possibility of applying granular mineral fertilizers. Seeders with no more than four seeding units are usually equipped with one fan. Seeders with five to eighteen seeding units are equipped with two fans.
The sowing device drive has a chain drive, and by replacing the stars, a large number of rotational speeds of the sowing device shaft is achieved, which ensures a wide range of seeding rate regulation from several tens of grams to several kilograms per hectare. Vegetable crops are sown on a flat and ridge surface. When sowing on a profiled surface, the height of the ridges is 15-25 cm, and the width is 140 cm, the distance between their axial lines is 140, 160 and 180 cm.
The seeds for sowing are sorted out according to the requirements for the quality of the seed. Loose seeds must be sanded. Planters must perform precise and nested sowing of vegetable seeds in accordance with the specified rates and patterns.
The use of precision seed drills allows you to reduce the cost of seeds, to obtain uniform seedlings, which ultimately increases the yield of crops, reduces the use of manual labor for thinning seedlings.
Vegetable precision seed drills on the market are offered by Gaspardo, Sfoggia, Checchi & Magli, Agricola, Stanhay, Kverneland. Domestic producers also have similar units (Maple models), which have proven themselves well among Ukrainian vegetable growers. Unlike foreign brands, they have an electronic seeding system, which ensures the sowing of a wide range of vegetables and other crops, the choice of a seeding rate of 0.05-150 kg / ha, does not require re-equipment of the sowing device when changing the culture and manual labor costs when changing the seeding rate. The design of the seeding unit does not require replaceable gears, seeding discs, etc.
The seedling method of planting is widely used when growing vegetables, especially for crops such as tomatoes. The seedling method has a number of advantages over the seed method:
- Saving seed material, which is especially important when growing hybrids, because hybrid seeds are more expensive
- Earlier harvest
- Planting seedlings at the optimal time and minimizing the risk of damage from spring frosts
- Achieving optimal plant density
- Creation of the possibility of conveyor harvesting.
With the seedling method of growing, a line planting scheme is used on a flat or ridge surface. To mechanize the technological process of transplanting seedlings, transplanting machines are used. Seedling machines provide planting of seedlings with a planting step of 10-50 cm, while achieving a 100% quantitative proportion of plants planted with a permissible deviation from a given interval between plants. Below in the view we look at the work of the Florida transplanter.
The most represented manufacturers of transplanters on the domestic market are Ferrari, Sfoggia, Checchi & Magli, Hortech.
Caring for vegetables during the growing season
This technological process is an important component of vegetable growing technologies. The care system is aimed at creating optimal conditions for the development of crops, their rational use of nutrients, moisture and solar energy to form maximum yields. Caring for crops and plantings of vegetable crops combines the following technological operations:
- Thinning of seedlings and formation of density
- Loosening row spacings
- Pest and disease control
- Maintaining water regime
- Top dressing.
One of the important factors in obtaining high yields of vegetables is the placement of the optimal number of plants per unit area. In modern technologies for growing vegetable crops, the seeding rate is calculated, as a rule, for the final optimal density, therefore, under such conditions, thinning is not performed. Domestic cultivators such as KRNV-4, 2 (5,6) are mainly used for processing the aisles of vegetable crops. Domestic machine builders do not produce special cultivators for inter-row processing of vegetable crops.
Modified cultivator KRNV-4, 2
Inter-row vegetable cultivator SIRIO
Leading foreign manufacturers of agricultural machinery produce special cultivators for inter-row cultivation of vegetable crops with passive and active working bodies, devices for protecting rows of seeds and plantings and applying fertilizers. The most common machines in vegetable production are Gaspardo, Mascio, Struik.
All possible measures for the optimal provision of plants with sufficient water are aimed at irrigation, without which it is impossible to obtain a satisfactory yield of vegetable crops.
Drip irrigation is becoming more widespread in the production of vegetable crops. On the market, the corresponding equipment is most represented by the firms Eurodrip, Netafim, Irritrol.
Harvesting vegetable crops is one of the most labor-intensive technological processes. This is due to the need to attract seasonal workers. To solve this problem, it is necessary to mechanize the technological processes for collecting vegetable products.
The most comprehensive solution today is the issue of mechanized harvesting of tomatoes, onions, carrots. For the implementation of technological processes, there is a whole complex of machines, usually of foreign production.
For the mechanization of tomato harvesting, tomato harvesters are used, which are produced both as self-propelled machines and trailed ones. Note that for the use of tomato harvesters, varieties are selected in such a way that at least 70% of the fruits ripen at the same time.
The layout of plants for combine harvesting of tomatoes is tape or line.
The fruits harvested by the harvester are unloaded into trailers, which in the aggregate with a tractor or car bodies, synchronously move next to the harvester. Tomato harvesting equipment among the farms is represented by the brands "Romas" and Guaresi.
We look below at the video on the work of the Sirio inter-row milling cultivator:
For harvesting onion fruits, a set of machines is provided, consisting of machines for cutting leaves, machines for digging out the onion and placing it in a swath and machines for picking up onion swaths. For mechanized harvesting of onions, it is necessary that pre-sowing and inter-row cultivation, as well as pre-harvest preparation of crops, are carried out according to the cultivation technology for mechanized harvesting.
Soil moisture during the harvesting period in the 0-10 cm layer is within 15-25%, soil hardness is 0.5-1.6 MPa. The depth of the onion in the soil is up to 10 cm. During the harvesting period, the onion, after being dug out, is in the rolls for ripening and normal drying. The machines must be able to pick up and load the bulbs into the vehicle. Today on the market there are machines for separate collection of onions from several manufacturers: Asa-Lift, Samon, Simon (photo 19-23).
Recently, we have been supplied with harvesters that are capable of collecting from one to four rows of carrots, depending on the model and configuration.
During the movement of the unit, the working bodies undermine the carrots, which, with the help of a belt conveyor, are fed to the gig cutting mechanism. Next, the carrots are fed into a container or vehicle. The manufacturers of these machines are Asa-Lift and Simon.
Carrot harvester on the left in the photo. Mechanization of technological processes in vegetable growing is a way of increasing the productivity of the industry, reducing the cost of production and increasing its competitiveness.
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